Cloud computing had entered the mainstream by the early s. The city of New York acquired its characteristic skyline, built upon the exploitation of steel frames and reinforced concrete.
The last time major powers The computer revolution of the 20th century openly was inand since then, violence has seen an unprecedented decline. In part, well-established media of communication like printing participated in this revolution, although most of the significant changes—such as the typewriter, the Linotype, and the high-speed power-driven rotary press—were achievements of the 19th century.
Martin Luther King, Jr. Transistorized computers could contain tens of thousands of binary logic circuits in a relatively compact space. The 20th century witnessed a colossal expansion of electrical power generation and distribution. Civil engineering One industry that has not been deeply influenced by new control-engineering techniques is construction, in which the nature of the tasks involved makes dependence on a large labour force still essential, whether it be in constructing a skyscraper, a new highway, or a tunnel.
Thus, in this crucial event of the midth century, the convergence of science, technology, economics, and politics finally took place. Techniques of blood transfusionexamination by X-rays discovered inradiation therapy following demonstration of the therapeutic effects of ultraviolet light in and the discovery of radium inand orthopedic surgery for bone disorders all developed rapidly.
This led to a reassessment of wind effects on the loading of large suspension bridges and to significant improvements in subsequent designs. The potential for adaptation and utilization of the computer seems so great that many commentators have likened it to the human brain, and there is no doubt that human analogies have been important in its development.
But the stimulus of World War II gave a fresh urgency to research in this field, and commercial production of penicillin, the first of the antibiotics, began in The war led the Manhattan Project to produce the fission bomb that was first exploded at Alamogordo, N. In phototypesetting, a photographic image is substituted for the conventional metal type.
Most likely a comparable number of civilians died of war-induced disease and other indirect effects. It was realized that the presence of these materials is necessary for a healthy diet, and eating habits and public health programs were adjusted accordingly.
The success of Bakelite gave a great impetus to the plastics industry, to the study of coal tar derivatives and other hydrocarbon compoundsand to the theoretical understanding of the structure of complex molecules.
For all the refinements for example, the self-starter and multitudinous varieties, the major fact of the automobile in this period was its quantity. This new military technology had an incalculable effect on international relationsfor it contributed to the polarization of world power blocs while enforcing a caution, if not disciplinein the conduct of international affairs that was absent earlier in the 20th century.
The airplane, the rocket and interplanetary probes, electronics, atomic power, antibiotics, insecticides, and a host of new materials have all been invented and developed to create an unparalleled social situation, full of possibilities and dangers, which would have been virtually unimaginable before the present century.
His report "Proposed Electronic Calculator" was the first specification for such a device. In Japan, where computer and other electronics technology made giant strides since the s, fully computerized and automated factories were in operation by the mids, some of them employing complete workforces of robots in the manufacture of other robots.
Stored programs A section of the Manchester Babythe first electronic stored-program computer Early computing machines had fixed programs. The number of people killed during the century by government actions was in the hundreds of millions.
Industry and innovation There were technological innovations of great significance in many aspects of industrial production during the 20th century. Bytablet computers and smartphones were expected to exceed personal computers in Internet usage. An important example of this is the manufacture of artificial rubber to meet a world demand far in excess of that which could be met by the existing rubber plantations.
At least seven of these later machines were delivered between andone of them to Shell labs in Amsterdam. This was essentially a development from the carbon-filament electric lightbulb. The discovery in of the first aniline dye had been occasioned by a vain attempt to synthesize quinine from coal tar derivatives.
On land, steam fought a long rearguard action, but the enormous popularity of the automobile deprived the railways of much of their passenger traffic and forced them to seek economies in conversion to diesel engines or electric traction, although these developments had not spread widely in Europe by the outbreak of World War II.
In the mids the attention of the U. It is a hand-operated analog computer for doing multiplication and division. Although the United States recommissioned several battleships in the s, the aircraft carrier became the principal capital ship in the navies of the world.
It was featured in the January, issue of Popular Electronics. The internal-combustion engine was utilized in the tractor, which became the almost universal agent of mobile power on the farm in the industrialized countries.
The second stage was that of the manned space program. The first artificial textiles had been made from rayona silklike material produced by extruding a solution of nitrocellulose in acetic acid into a coagulating bath of alcohol, and various other cellulosic materials were used in this way.
Advancing techniques for large-scale construction produced many spectacular skyscrapersbridges, and dams all over the world but especially in the United States. Such forces were deployed in wars in Korea and Vietnam, the latter of which also saw the widespread use of napalm bombs and chemical defoliants to remove the cover provided by dense forests.
By the use of various catalysts in the process, means were devised for still further manipulating the molecules of the hydrocarbon raw material. Linear polymers give strong fibres, film-forming polymers have been useful in paints, and mass polymers have formed solid plastics.
Atomic power stations were built on this principle in the advanced industrial world, and the system is still undergoing refinement, although so far atomic energy has not vindicated the high hopes placed in it as an economic source of electricity and presents formidable problems of waste disposal and maintenance.The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, and ended on December 31, It was the tenth and final century of the 2nd millennium.
It is distinct from the century known as the s which began on January 1, and ended on December 31, You can forget inventions like air conditioning, television, the computer and the Internet. The single most important invention of the 20th. 20th Century Timeline - 20th Century — the Technology, Science, and Inventions.
Share Flipboard or analog computer invented by Vannevar Bush at MIT in Boston. A 20th-Century Timeline. An A-to-Z List of Important Inventions. The 20th century also brought about a revolution in health and living standards. The latter part of the 19th century was an era of tuberculosis, typhoid, sanitariums.
You can forget inventions like air conditioning, television, the computer and the Internet.
The single most important invention of the 20th century was the transistor, according to some. The 20th century Technology from to Recent history is notoriously difficult to write, because of the mass of material and the problem of distinguishing the significant from the insignificant among events that have virtually the power of contemporary experience.Download